The Q was written with Pebeo resist, allowed to dry, watercolor over, and when the paint is dry, the Pebeo is rubbed off to reveal the paper. The R was written with Pearl-Ex Duo Red/Blue pigment mixed with gum arabic 4:1 to make a paint. On white paper it appears iridescent rose. The S was written into a patch of wet watercolor wash with a dry pen to "bruise" the paper. The T was written with the same Pearl-Ex Duo Red/Blue pigment on black paper where it appears both rose and blue iridescent from different angles.